In Hungary recent constitutional changes highlight the risks of abuse of power by a strong executive and a parliament in which the opposition has little oversight of the ruling majority. Checks and balances appear to be severely compromised by the new arrangements. Furthermore the process of constitutional change has been widely criticised as lacking in transparency and meaningful consultation. It remains to be seen what the long-term effects of this new constitutional order will have on the integrity framework in Hungary, but the initial signs raise cause for concern. [...] Another legal gap that allows parties to keep contributions secret and bypass financing rules is the practice of funnelling money through foundations or affiliated associations that are not subject to the transparency and accountability requirements of political parties. The assessment of Hungary finds that much of the mysterious money circulating in political circles comes from foundations closely affiliated to political parties. [...] Hungary regulated lobbying through legislation from 2006 to 2010, but this was rolled back in 2011 [...] only 55 per cent of tenders below the threshold were publically announced resulting in little public scrutiny or oversight.

Transparency International: Money, Politics, Power: Corruption Risks in Europe