What Makes an Effective Teacher? Quasi-Experimental Evidence:
“This paper measures empirically the relationship between classroom
teaching practices and student achievements.

Based on primary- and
middle-school data from Israel, I find very strong evidence that two
important elements of teaching practices cause student achievements
to improve.

In particular, classroom teaching that emphasizes the
instilment of knowledge and comprehension, often termed
“traditional”-style teaching, has a very strong and positive effect
on test scores, particularly among girls and pupils of low
socioeconomic background.

Second, the use of classroom techniques
that endow pupils with analytical and critical skills (“modern”
teaching) has a very large positive payoff, evidenced in improvement
of test scores across subgroups differentiated by gender and
socioeconomic background.

However, the effect of each of these two
teaching-practices are different at different treatment intensity,
the first has its highest effect at low to medium levels of
treatment, while the second has its largest impact at high levels of

I also find that transparency, fairness, and proper
feedback in teachers’ conduct with their students improve academic
performance, especially among boys.

However, I find no evidence of
an effect of a second element of modern teaching, instilment of the
capacity for individual study.

Apart from identifying “what works”
in the classroom, these findings yield two insights for the debate
about the merit of “traditional” versus “modern” approaches to
teaching, which are often discussed as rival classroom pedagogical

First, one approach does not necessarily crowd out the
other; both may coexist in the classroom production function of

Second, it is best to target the two teaching practices
differentially to students of different genders and abilities.

effect of the effective teaching practices estimated is very large,
especially in comparison with that of other potential interventions
such as reducing class size or increasing school hours of
instruction.” http://papers.nber.org/papers/W16885